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|11-05-2006, 08:17 AM||#31|
Join Date: Jun 2005
Location: Washington, DC
Submarine Warfare in the Arctic: Option or Illusion? by Mark Sakitt
This book was written in the 1980s, as Congress was considering funding for the 600-ship navy. A thing of the past, the book offers some good historical documentation of thinking about the Soviet threat. One of the drivers for the huge submarine force of the 600 ship navy, was the hunt for Soviet SSBNs in the arctic.
The first thing in this short book that struck me of profound usefulness to scenario makers, was the first chart. On it is the Soviet's estimates of the NATO forces disposition in the European theatre. It includes the positions of CVBGs, SSN operating areas, surface ASW, CAPTOR minefields, and MPA patrol areas, as well as their estimated locations of SOSUS barriers. From the perspective of scenario development, these things open up the possiblity for a myriad of extremely realistic scenarios fighting WWIII from the GIUK Gap all the way up through the Norwegian Sea. Finding these sorts of charts in unclassified literature is rare, so unless you're the sort of person who likes to put in a lot of Freedom of Information Act requests in order to support their hobby, this item alone makes the book valuable from the perspective of scenario development.
Additionally, there's descriptions of the various tactics SSBNs might use in their defence, including the use of decoys embedded in minefields and the use of escorts.
Generally painting a bleak picture for US under-ice capabilities, the book highlights exactly how challenging the environment can be. Showing the effects of ice keels on sonar, their frequency, and other technical pieces of information, which might be of more use to game developers than scenario developers, but are none the less interesting and add to a more informed discussion of ASW tactics.
|12-19-2006, 02:50 PM||#32|
Join Date: Sep 2004
Location: Compartment № 5 /Silos/
~~~~~ From memuars Admiral Chernavin - Ex-general Commander NAVY of USSR.~~~~
We accepted all possible measures, that remove to praise at at whom her it appeared much. And the operation, about which there will
be a speech below, has worked, outright has disturbed Pentagun and has called inquiries in a Congress of USA. I do not know, how
named ours manouevre the Americans, but in our service documents this operation passed under the code name "«ATRINA".* [* a
comment of the author. "«ATRINA" - word artificial, it no in any dictionaries. We did not want, that even the semantic shade of a code
word could something say about developed operation. By the same principle were given the names and its other stages -
She was conceived still then, when I commanded Northern Fleet, and preparation for its realization began at once, as soon as me
have ratified in a post Commander NAVY USSR. However to lead her technical readiness of some ships immediately has not allowed
readiness of crews. It was necessary to transfer her(it) by the beginning of 1987.
In what the sense "«ATRINA" consist? The Americans have got used for, that ours Subs are put forward in areas of a battle service
— and it first of all Northern Atlantic and Mediterranean sea — on the same direction with small deviations: or between Fareras and
Scottish islands, or between Iceland and Greenland. And it is difficult to find any other optimum from the seaworthy point of view (I yet I
do not speak about the tactical party of business) way from coast of the Kola peninsula in the Mediterranean sea.
So, for years of our many battle services ASW of force NATO have learned to intercept Soviet Subs on these main routes of
expansion. It was necessary to find and to check up in practice a way of expansion Subs without loss of reserve, and at the same time
and slightly impudent «of the probable opponent », having shown, that if necessary we can put answer-back impact.
The success of similar demonstration would immediately be reflected in tone of many international negotiation, which in second half
1980 years. The Americans were inclined to spend at powerful diplomatic pressure, supporting it at times and «by game of muscles »
of military fleet, or else, «to politics ships » we should oppose quite adequate « politics of underwater cruisers ».
The success of this operation meant and for the international prestige ours NAVY much. NATOs Commanders should feel, that with
a leaving former Commander — of the Admiral of Fleet of the Soviet Union Gorshkov, it is a lot of made for fleet and for a conclusion of
our ships to open spaces of World ocean, — his successor not only is not going to to hand over the found positions, but also is ready to
continue an independent and firm line of the predecessor.
Thus, the operation "«ATRINA" became to some extent mine NAVY Commander by a debut, to lose it was impossible under no
My choice put on 33 Sub division a Northern Fleet, equipped by then by most modern ships completed with the skilled officers -
submariners. Actually, this oldest subs formation, whose label — the white bear breaking in hands an enemy submarine, itself prepared
for itself and delivered on other associations and fleet of the commanders of the ships, testing conditions of Arctic Region.
But most important — the submariners this formation had by unique experience of joint actions in Atlantic similar themes, which
were planned in "«ATRINA". In June, 1985 in area New-Faundlend banks they carried out operation under the code name "«APORT",
which pursued two basic purposes: to open areas of patroling SSBNs of the probable opponent and to reveal new tactical receptions
of ASW forces NATO.
I always was excited with a problem commanders of independence at ocean. Still by commander 45 Sub Division, I not without envy
see in the party of the army colleagues. The commander motor-shooting or tank-division itself creates fight, itself develops ways of
actions and management of forces in scale of connection, i.e. he though also small, but commander.
We on fleet had other system. We, sea commanders only in base and in ranges of battle preparation. With an exit in the sea actions
of the underwater ships operate with HQ of Northern fleet or from Moscow — with Kremlin.
I believed and I believe, what is it compelled, but not absolutely correct practice. In conditions Nuclear of war at ocean the
commanders of the ships and connections is free or involuntarily will receive where large freedom of actions, than in peace time,
therefore they should be able to accept the independent decisions and to not be afraid to do it. More shortly to be able to be at war at
own risk, sometimes not waiting of the orders HQ, which in conditions Nuclear war not the ship always can reach. Here speech goes
about management only by underwater forces, since at surface forces system another.
I have not forgotten those old division commander of experiences and reflections and by way of experiment has charged with
development of ocean operations a staff sub division. Moreover, has offered to operate involved Subs not only from Moscow, but also
from a board of the ship in the sea to the commander a sub division.
But at first some words about operation "«APORT". Developed its staff 33-rd division led by commander — young, vigorous and for
the years rather skilled submariners by the captain 1 rank Anatoliy Ivanovitch Schevtchenko (nowadays — by the vice-admiral). Well
understanding, that the success of any battle operation in its suddenness, and guarantee of suddenness — reserve of preparation,
Schevtchenko has limited a circle of the devoted persons and has lead a number of measures on false information. Even the chief of
the special department naval reconaissance, professional spy, and that has not suspected, that division prepares for large-scale
operation. One day prior to an exit of the subs in the sea Schevtchenko has offered to the chief of the special department to undersign
under date of the written message about the beginning of operation.
— Where I to you for one day search am so much the representatives? — that was amazed.
However has found, and May 29, 1985 year, sub division began expansion. From Zapadnaya Litza send four multi-purpose SSN :
K - 299, K -324, K - 488, K - 502.
Fifth, K -147, — with new system of detection wakehome of a trace (on keelwaterof anomaly) has left from Gremikha
The marching staff led by the captain 1 rank Schevychenko has arrived in area of operation (Caribbean sea) earlier — onboard AGI
ship "«LIRA". East of Cuba Schevtchenko and his officers send on gydroagraph camuflage ship "«Kolguev", from which board through
space satellite communication and order then management submarines.
The operation began on June 18 to the west New-Faundlends banks. Two subs were set one after another clockwise, and two —
towards to them. This double "Whirlpool" has joined also four planes of sea aircraft TU -142, flying up with the Cuban air station
The Americans have begun to worry. In air have risen patrol ASW P-3 'Orion' planes from air bases Bransweek (Bermoods sector),
Lagens (Azores sector) and Greenwood (Canadian sector). They order search of our boats days and nights, making on 3-4 flights per
Have found out only K - 488, and that in the Icelandic sector, on home return transition.
Ours "Find" was more powerful: K - 324 had three contacts with American SSBN and SSN, the total time of tracking behind them
has made 28 hours. Was distinguished K - 147 (commander — V.V.Nikitin). The crew it sub within five day conducted tracking for
American SSBN, go behind her on keelwater to a trace. Then on an order staff, K - 147, come up is closer and having entered in
hydroacoustic contact, conducted tracking in a passive mode even day.
Pertinently to pay attention to time of tracking (day) for American SSBN. I point on it attention only because some «connoisseurs-
experts" till now try to prove, that ours subs — both «blind, and deaf persons", and American...
By July 1, 1985 the operation "APORT" was completed. In result find out two areas of patroling American subs such as « James
Madison », two areas of actions multi-purpose SSN USA, and also are revealed tactical receptions of the American aircraft by search
developed in the sea SSNs. All our submarines safely have come back in bases.
Developing operation "ATRINA", have recollected experience "APORT". Certainly, more suitable commander of a underwater veil,
than captain 1 rank Schevtchenko, * [* — an Interesting detail. In 1992 emissars 'RUCH' persuaded the vice-admiral Schevtchenko to
leave the Russian fleet and to head NAVY of Ukraine. However Anatoliy Ivanovitch flatly has refused to change to the oath. I well for a
long time knew and I know Anatoliy Ivanovitch and other act from him and did not expect.] to find was difficultly.
So, five multi-purpose SSNs, five commanders, five crews, should quickly be prepared for most crucial joint navigation in western
hemisphere of a planet. Even the commanders SSN only at the latest moment have learned details of operation, where and with what
purpose the ships leave.
Together with SSNs two took part in operation surface ships with flexible towed arrays such as "Kolguev" and division of sea aircraft
TU-142. And was planned, that the planes will fly up not only from air stations of the Kola peninsula and centre of Russia, but also from
ir stations of Cuba.
It was necessary to organize precise mutual understanding of all diverse forces. The active participation in it was accepted
commander Northern fleet, the admiral I.M. Kapitanetz.
I shall not be mistaken, if I shall say, that of so careful purposeful joint preparation of commanders of the subs and ASW air planes in
our fleet was not spent yet. It was the well planned study...
In the first of March, 1987 from Zapadnaya Litza there was first SSN of the future veil. In the agreed time second has come off a
mooring, then third, fourth, fifth... The operation "ATRINA" began...
It is necessary to say, that subs go on a battle service usually in the single. Less often — in pairs. And here in ocean left almost
whole full division: K - 299, K - 244, K - 298 , K - 255 and K - 524.
For "Corner" — as our submariners call the Scandinavian peninsula — division was put forward by a usual way.
Therefore probable opponent, for which, certainly, the disappearance from base remained to five "units" noticed, was not so disturbed.
Go by a well known track — and good. The analysts from Pentagun could even predict, in what area of Atlantic send "Soviets".
But this time they is healthy have miscalculated. Per the agreed day, at the nominated hour of a nuclear underwater o'clock have
turned « all suddenly ». The veil quickly displaced on W.... was formed of a marching column — pleased stretched in time and space ...
Besides other tasks before a veil there was a purpose to open underwater and surface navigable conditions in that part of ocean,
which was badly covered by other means of sea investigation. Running forward, I shall notice: this task was completely executed. I
received the reports on many contacts with SSN USA and United Kingdom, which were developed those days on the Atlantic theatre.
Certainly, and our boats have not remained without attention. Rather concerned of themes, that whole division of nuclear underwater
cruisers USSR with anybody by the unknown purposes goes to coast of America, goes covertly, my colleagues - contenders from
Pentagun have thrown on search of a veil of tens patrol planes, powerful ASW of force.
Later commanders reported me, that was at times impossible going PD, during communication, or to lift shaft snorkhel for pump of
air in cylinders high pressure tanks. It was the real hunting with application of all means of search and detection SSN. Worked ESM
and radars, surface hydrolocators pinged ultrasonic beams of depth of Atlantic. The planes of base and deck patrol aircraft turned
above ocean round the clock, exposing barriers sonobuoys, using in all modes the onboard search equipment: MAD, IR, indicators of a
Worked hydrophones of system of distant hydroacoustic supervision and space means of investigation. But passed day, second,
and the traces missed SSNs formation were not found out anywhere. Really — in water dissolved .
Within eight day American ASW of force did not know, where there are our ships. In the meantime they have come in Sargass the
sea, in notorious Bermood a triangle, where year a SSBN K - 219 back was lost, and, not reaching some tens miles up to British Naval
Base Hamilthon (since 1940 on her are based the American ships and planes), again in which times, abruptly have changed a rate.
Soon chief of investigation Northern fleet has reported to me, that from Norfolk send on search of group Schevtchenko, six SSN. It
not including what already were on usual battle patroling in Atlantic. On search ours subs three squadrons ASW of planes three CVBG
(one of them English led by Carrier such as "«Invincible"), three ships of distant hydroacoustic investigation such as "Stalwart" were
thrown in addition.
The Americans not absolutely correctly classified ours subs, having determined them as only SSBN. And was reported to the
president of USA Reygan: Russian SSBNs are in dangerous affinity from coast of America. That is why against us the so large ASW
forces were directed. They pursued group of the captain 1 rank Schevtchenko almost on all a return way.
To come off this ASW hunters, to be covered from its means of active search, I have permitted to the commanders to apply devices
false signals, which are supplied SSN with. They shot simulators of noise SSN, forcing down the persecutors from a true rate. The
purposes masking maneuverable actions SSN were used and LSZ — false contact device. Were applied etc. ways and means of
introduction of the opponent in error.
Fortunately, on this times fortune to us was mercy. All five SSNs safely have returned to base. I think, business here not only in luck.
Have defined success careful preparation for operation and high training of crews.
The commanders SSN were awarded with awards of a Red Banner. Have received the governmental awards and other officers and
mitchmans, distinguished in it heavy three-monthly navigation.
Besides the important items of information about ASW forces and means of the probable opponent in Atlantic, which were received
as a result of operation "ATRINA", the campaign had also large moral - psychological meaning for our submariners who have deeply
survived recent destruction strategic SSBN K-219. From a fatal exit "Komsomoletz SSN ('Mike' NATO Code)" us separated then two
years, and we with lawful pride celebrated a victory in this « to small fight for Atlantic », as for fun assigned operation "ATRINA" its
Analyzing its results, I was once again convinced: the Americans have not enough for the complete control above ocean in case of a
mass exit SSNs and SSBNs of forces. Anyway at Pentagun there are no guarantees, that developed prior to the beginning battle
actions Soviet nuclear submarines will be found out before drawing by them of answer-back impact.
Americans of the similar doctrines did not spend. At presence Naval bases, scattered worldwide, the need in the similar actions at
them no. Us, that is called, the geography has forced.
The application of the then General secretary Y.A. Andropow that, despite of the underwater system, developed against us, "Trident
SLBMs", at us is an opportunity to put impact of punishment on territory of USA. Was confirmed, including and results of the finished
operation. Andropow a any more was not in alive, when the awards give have handed.
Excuse for translation....
-+= I the ocean hunter, and I am dangerous =+-
*** Kalashnikov - the best ***
|08-22-2008, 11:32 AM||#33|
Join Date: Sep 2003
Seapower and Space
One potential reference is Norman Friedman's Seapower and Space. It describes the historical uses of space systems (US, NATO, and Soviet primarily) in naval warfare. It's slightly dated (2000) but there are several copies are available below.
Amazon US link
Amazon UK link
I've run across some old threads on this board with respect to Over The Horizon targeting (OTH-T) for the OSCAR class. Someone mentioned her Punch Bowl antenna. I *think* the book discusses this system a little.
|08-22-2008, 12:59 PM||#34|
Join Date: Sep 2003
Shipping Density Graphic
I like to provide realistic neutral traffic in scenarios. Maps like the one below indicate (generally) the routes along which worldwide shipping moves. I do *not* know if this map is only ships or if it also includes intercontinental air traffic. But I figure a Great Circle route is a Great Circle route and use the map below to get a general idea of what directions the merchants in my scenarios should be heading.
If anyone has better maps or maps of fishing densities that would be great to!!!
edit - added uncertainty about air traffic
|08-24-2008, 05:55 AM||#35|
Where did you find that map, was looking for maps like that in the past.
|08-24-2008, 07:05 PM||#36|
Join Date: Sep 2003
I got that picture from here:
The website states that the image came from an article (I should have cited it directly, excuse me):
Kareiva, P., et al. (2007) Domesticated Nature: Shaping Landscapes and Ecosystems for Human Welfare. Science 316, 1866
I have not looked at the reference, so I cannot judge it's accuracy. But it suffices for my rough purposes.
|08-28-2008, 02:16 PM||#37|
Join Date: Sep 2003
Dr. Owen Coat - The Third Battle
Best summary of US Navy side of the Cold War ASW I've ever read. A little dated but very approachable. Only tells the US side of the story...but still very interesting. Link below:
The Third Battle: Innovation
in the U.S. Navy's Silent
Cold War Struggle
with Soviet Submarines
Dr. Owen R. Cote, Jr.
|09-17-2008, 12:42 PM||#38|
Join Date: Sep 2003
Anti-Piracy Missions, anyone?
This wikipedia entry contains incidences of piracy off the Somali coast. NATO vessels are frequently involved in the rescue of these crews. The pirates are not particularly well equipped in these stories...but this might serve as an interesting mission set for some designer out there:
There are many other instances of piracy every year all over the world.
International Maritime Bureau Live Piracy Map 2008
South China Sea
Seems like good stuff for you P-3, SH-60, and FFG drivers out there
|09-17-2008, 12:49 PM||#39|
Join Date: Sep 2003
Saw this on the news today and thought that some enterprising FFG mission builder might be interested.
Sub with cocaine seized off Costa Rica
Last edited by feld; 09-17-2008 at 01:58 PM. Reason: Deleted double post and replaced with new idea